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 Accidental similarities / (these can be homonyms or homographs in the same language or different languages.)
 adjective, also nouns used attributively, functioning like an adjective (e.g., Somali 'qaali'=expense, but also expensive, e.g., 'Ma qaali baa?'=Is it expensive?)
 adjective, comparison, comparative degree
 adjective, comparison, superlative degree
 adverb, adverbial expression or part of an adverbial expression (Somali 'berrito'=adverb, compare 'berri'=noun 0=time; it can accept=a definite article= -da)
 adverb, adverbial expression or part of an adverbial expression, comparative degree
 adverb, adverbial expression or part of an adverbial expression, superlative degree
 agreement, confirmation (English: yes, right, sure, certainly)
 body, names of body parts and verb relating to body (E.g., Somali 'lug'=leg; gacan=hand, arm; madax=head)
 clothes, ornaments, jewelry
 cognates with Maay, Lower Shabelle
 cognates with other African languages other than already listed here, some hypothetical
 cognates with other languages/coincidental or influence/Chinese
 cognates with other languages/coincidental or influence/Indo-European, Slavic
 cognates with other languages/coincidental or influence/Uralic/e.g. Hungarian, Finnish
 cognates with other languages/hypothetical or false&Afr.lgs influence
 cognates with Somali, some are hypothetical or false (Somali word 'nin'=man similar to numeral classifier 'nin' in Japanese 人 (the symbol=Chinese))
 cognates with Swahili including Bravanese, Somalia, some hypothetical, also possible loanwords (e.g., mosi=one in Zigua and in Bravanese)
 cognates within the same language basic group, other Cushitic
 cognates within the same language basic group, other Edoid
 cognates within the same language basic group, other Igboid
 cognates within the same language basic group, other Ijoid
 cognates within the same language basic group, other Yoruboid
 cognates within the same macro-language, e.g., Swahili
 cognates, African&Other-general
 cognates, Afro-Asiatic, Arabic, some hypothetical or false, includes Perso-Arabic loanwords, with Persian being viewed as Indo-European (e.g., madalla /Hausa from Arabic=thank you)
 cognates, Indo-European other than listed
 cognates, Indo-European, Hindi/Urdu
 cognates, Swadesh list
 cognates/ languages in East Benue-Congo branch /e.g., Bantu
 cognates/ languages in West Benue-Congo branch, e.g., Yoruba, Igbo, Edo
 cognates/languages in the Niger-Congo phylum
 cognates/languages/Afro-Asiatic other than Arabic
 cognates/loanwords from Indo-European, English; some are hypothetical or false (e.g., itomatosi/Urhobo from English)
 cognates/loanwords from Indo-European, French, some hypothetical or false
 cognates/loanwords from Indo-European, Italian, some hypothetical or false (Somali, loan word from Italian: bambaano=grenade)
 cognates/loanwords from Indo-European, Persian
 cognates/loanwords from Indo-European, Portuguese
 cognates/loanwords from Somali, some hypothetical or false
 cognates/loanwords/other languages/various
 commands/imperatives/requests (stand up!)
 commerce(also local)
 common useful phrases or words
 common verbs
 common verbs in serial constructions (multiple verb constructions)
 common verbs, in causative constructions
 conjunctions in context
 Culture, art, film, folk science
 customs (marriage, proposal, wedding, funerals, parenting, social behavior)
 Definiteness strong/noun+definite article, adjective+definite article
 Definiteness strong/possessive pronoun+definite article
 Definiteness weaker/double determiner possessive pronoun+ definite article Not allowed
 determiners, definite (similar to English:article 'the', 'a', in Urhobo; oshari na; man the=the man, suffix-bei masc. kumobei;)
 directions (north, south, etc. also 'right', left', etc.)
 disabilities, also injuries
 exclamations ('eeh' Izon ; English: 'ouch')
 food, water, drink, culture, food-related (nkwu=palm oil)
 forms of address (sir, ma' am, Listen, father!, Yes. sister!)
 gender, grammatical (Somali, grammatical gender is overtly expressed by determiners/definite article, e.g., the suffix - ka is a typical masculine gender marker whereas - ta is a feminine gender marker)
 gender, grammatical, polarity, e.g., gender switch between the singular versus plural form (see Somali, e.g.. nouns declension 6 and 7 =noun 6 singular=always feminine, noun 6 plural always masculine; noun 7 singular=always masculine, noun 7 plural always feminine see Orwin (1995), p.58-59)
 Goodbyes, response pairs
 goodbyes, taking leave expressions
 government, authorities
 greetings and openings of a conversation
 household items
 identifying a person, also descriptions& questions 'what is your name?' (my name is....)
 islamists/jargon/recent (murtad=apostate, convert from Islam, adopted by Al Shabaab as a special expression)
 land resources, plants, agriculture
 land resources/pastoralism (adhi=caprines, sheep and goats, or camels, cows, etc.)
 land/resource/ oil
 language mixing/code switching (Urhobo & English; Fulani &French)
 marker, negation, suffix on the verb
 marker/sentence classifier/mood (Somali 'waa' marks declarative sentences, 'ma' marks the interrogative mood/questions/tone=variable; 'ha'=English let's=wish=optative mood)
 markers, Focus = Focusing Subject of the Sentence, SOMALI, = Three step process, 1) Put Subject in Absolutive Case, 2) Add Marker: 'ayaa' or 'baa' (Webiga Jubba ayaa mará (example Abdulahi Ahmed), Nimánka báa gúriga ká baxaý (Orwin, 1995, p. 94-96))
 markers, Focus=grammatical construction typical for many African languages. (Somali three focus markers: 'waxa/waxaa' OR 'ayaa', 'baa' (sometimes consonant 'b' is deleted and only 'aa' remains attached to the preceding noun.)
 markers, number/plural preceding the noun, free morpheme/separate word
 markers, number/plural preceding the noun, prefix
 markers, TRANSNUMERAL, ZER0 marker, same form for Singular and Plural, meaning depending on the context (kallun = fish, a single fish, or collective / mass /group WITHOUT ANY CHANGE OF FORM (see Serzisko, 1980 in Saeed, 2002))
 markers/ negation má=always high tone; áan (Somali, e.g., má=negation marker=always High Tone as opposed to ma=question marker=variable tone)
 markers/ negation/ prefix on the verb/ ma-, maa-
 markers/attributes/possessives/associative (Swahili and dialects; wa, ya, cha, za, la depending on the class of the noun which is the head of the construction)
 markers/number/plural, following the noun, free morpheme/separate word
 markers/number/plural, following the noun, suffix
 marking questions:marked only by intonation
 marking questions-grammar/vocabulary/ words, wh-, e.g. who, what, where type (Somali examples: yaa=who, immisa=how many, xagge=where, also suffixed, e.g. - kee=ninkee=which man)
 marking 'Yes-No' questions by Tone lowering
 marking 'Yes-No' questions by vowel lengthening
 military also terrorism or piracy
 money, currency including slang
 NOUN 0, noun classes, Somali (Declension or Noun Class Zero; Does not occur in the Plural , often Collective, Mass Noun, or Denoting Location)
 NOUN 1,2,3, noun classes, Somali (Declensions 1,2,3 common property = Plurals end in - o, MOST but NOT Alll show GENDER SWITCH between the Singular and Plural)
 NOUN 2 a, noun classes, Somali, GENDER SWITCH between the Singular and the Plural (Singular = masculine gender; GENDER SWITCH Plural = feminine gender, Tone changes)
 NOUN 2 b, noun classes, Somali, GENDER SWITCH between the Singular and the Plural (Singular = masculine gender; GENDER SWITCH Plural = feminine gender, NO Tone changes, Tone = LOW on all syllables)
 NOUN 4, noun classes, NO gender switch between the Singular and the Plural!, Somali (Declension 4, gender=Masculine, both Singular and Plural, NO gender switch! Exception wiil, wiilal. Plural Formation: partial reduplication=add Vowel = - a Plus a copy of the last Consonant, e.g., roob vs. roobab, af vs. afaf, Stress/Tone=Final Vowel.)
 NOUN 5, noun classes, GENDER SWITCH, Plurals marked by TONE CHANGES ONLY, NO endings (Declension 5, gender=Masculine, Plural, always Feminine, Gender switch! Stress Tone pattern: SINGULAR on the Penultimate Vowel; PLURAL on the Final Vowel.)
 NOUN 6, noun classes, GENDER SWITCH between Singular and Plural (Declension 6, Singular always Feminine, Plural always masculine gender; Gender Switch! Singular ending = - o, Plural ending = - oyin. Stress/Tone pattern: Singular and Plural=penultimate vowel. Example: hoóyo=mother; hoóyin=mothers.)
 NOUN 7, noun classes, Somali, GENDER SWITCH between Singular and Plural (Declension 7, nouns ending in Vowel - e; Exceptions, e.g., bí́yo=water, óday; Plural ending: - ayal, Gender: Singular always masculine, Plural always feminine, Gender Switch! Examples: aábbe vs. aabbayal, báre, barayaal. See Orwin (1995))
 NOUN 8, noun classes, Somali (Noun declension 8, IRREGULAR, e.g., markab=ship see Zorc and Issa (2002).)
 noun classes
 Noun, CASE, Absolutive, Somali (Basic, citation form, used as entry in most dictionaries)
 Noun, CASE, Genitive, Somali=Last Syllable becomes HIGH, all other syllables become LOW, one-syllable words must retain High Tone or change to the High Tone if it was Low in the Absolutive. EXCEPTION: Possessor Noun contains definite article. (see Saeed (2002), p. 148, e.g., Soomaaliyá=GENITIVE CASE=last syllable=High Tone, nín=HIGH TONE=ABSOLUTIVE CASE=retains HIGH TONE in the GENITVE CASE.)
 Noun, CASE, Genitive, some Feminine gender nouns endings in addition to Stress/Tone changes (add -eed or -yeed, those ending in - o, add -ood; Exceptions domestic animals: - ad)
 Noun, CASE, Subject, Somali - Tone change to Low (Grammatical Tone -- Subject Case lowers tone from the HIgh and from the Falling to LOW Tone, also feminine nouns ending in consonant add Vowel - it at the end. Definite article; e.g., - ka changes to - ku, - ha to -hu, etc.)
 Noun, CASE, Vocative, Grammatical Tone Changes alone. Somali. (All syllable EXCEPT FIRST become LOW. FIRST syllable=Short, Tone becomes HIGH. FIRST syllable=Long = Tone becomes FALLING.)
 Noun, Premodifier Form=Noun Phrase Stress/Tone Patterns. NOT considered case, Somali. Mostly equal to Absolutive CASE BUT also includes some Particular Stress/Tone Patterns (Most common pattern; changes when the noun is used with the determiner/definite article. For details see each entry. Listen to the forms. Details are provided in the Notes for each entry. To be displayed at a later time.)
 numbers 0-10 counting
 numbers 0-5 counting
 numbers 10-20 counting
 numbers 1-10 counting
 numbers 11-19 counting
 numbers 11-20 counting
 numbers 1-20 counting
 numbers 1-5 counting
 numbers 1-6 counting
 numbers 20-100 counting
 numbers 20-29 counting
 numbers 20-30 counting
 numbers 21-30 counting
 numbers 6-10 counting
 numbers in context
 numbers in context, age
 numbers in context, hours
 Numbers in Context, Number+Noun, Feminine, Somali (Masculine Nouns with Numbers in Somali are in the PLURAL GENIVE CASE, e.g., Compare 'hal naag'-one woman, laba nagood=two women, literally 'two of the women'.)
 Numbers in Context, Number+Noun, Masculine, Somali (Masculine Nouns with Numbers in Somali are in the SINGULAR GENIVE CASE, e.g., Compare 'hal nin'-one man, laba nin=two men.)
 numbers miscellaneous
 numbers, approximate
 numbers, in context, Word for Number One used only in Counting; in Somali also with time if no nouns mentioned (kow, time: kowda= one_the, kowdii_one_the remote article; for counting see the number lists at the beginning of this thesaurus)
 numbers, in context, Word for Number One which is used with Nouns
 numbers, individual
 numbers, multiples-base twenty= nx20, e.g., forty=2x20
 numbers, multiples-base twenty=20 xn, e.g., forty=20x2
 numbers, ordinal
 numbers, subtractive, base twenty (e.g., Igbo, Onitsha - nineteen=twenty minus one, an example of the traditional numbers)
 numbers, Switch' in 'teens' or 'twenties', word order or naming
 numbers, Switch' to subtractive at 26
 numbers, 'teens' 'decimal' base=10
 numbers, 'teens' switch to subtractive at 16, vigesimal, base=20
 numbers, ten thousands to one hundred thousands
 numbers, word order in 'teens', ten or ten equivalent precedes, Swahili type, e.g., kumi na moja=ten and two.
 numbers, word order in hundreds, smaller follows, e.g., Swahili: mia tano=hundred five=five hundred
 numbers, word order in hundreds, smaller precedes, e.g. English: five hundred
 numbers, word order in 'teens', ten or ten equivalent follows, Arabic type, also see English, e.g., thirteen.
 numbers, word order in thousands, smaller follows, e.g. Swahili: one thousand=elfu moja
 numbers, word order in thousands, smaller precedes, e.g. English: one thousand
 numbers, word order in twenties+smaller number; smaller number precedes
 numbers, word order in twenties+smaller number; twenty precedes
 numbers, word order switch in 'teens'=10+smaller number, starting at number 16
 numbers/word order=noun plus number
 numbers/word order=number plus noun
 pause fillers and discourse markers (well, um, .. so,)
 place names in Somalia including administrative terms
 place names, countries, continents, oceans, rivers,seas
 place, terrain, skies, location expressions, shapes, geometrical
 prefixes, suffixes, affixes and other markers, parts/morphemes (-in as in the word incorrect; past tense marker -ed as in wanted)
 prepositions or particles (Somali, prepositional particles, typically precede a verb and modify its meaning. Spelling: they should be written separately from the verb. Frequent misspelling: written jointly.)
 pronouns (Yoruba 'mo'=I, English 'I', 'you', 'it', etc.)
 pronouns, independent, absolutive case
 pronouns, independent, subject case
 pronouns, plural/exclusive, subject and object =we or us (excluding the interlocutor (hearer), e.g., Somali, subject verbal pro, long/short = - aannu; object = na)
 pronouns, plural/inclusive, subject and object =we or us (we or us =including the interlocutor (hearer), e.g., Somali, - aynu=subject long/short, ina=us=object)
 Proverbs and popular sayings
 quantifiers and expressions referring to quantity(other than numbers), also comparisons and verbs (referring to quantity (many, some, more, none, all, etc), count. count as, be a part of)
 question-answer pairs or request-response; greet-response pairs
 resources miscellaneous
 response to a question, request, or to a thank you
 Sentence structure and word order Subject Object Verb (SOV) (Ijo/Izon/Kolokuma SOV: Ọmịnị indí bayėmí= lit.They fish are catching=They are catching fish.)
 Sentence structure and word order Subject Verb Object (SVO) (English type basic word order 'Mary caught a fish'. Edoid, Igboid, Yoruboid languages as opposed to Ijoid.)
 Sentence Structure Type = Subordinate Clause
 Sentence structure type= Relative Clause
 Sentence Structure, Word Order=Adjective or other Modifier+Noun
 Sentence structure, Word order=Noun+Adjective or other Modifier
 Sentence structure, Word order=Noun+Adjective-Agreement marker
 Sentence structure, Word order=Noun+Poss.pronoun (mother your versus English type order: your mother)
 Sentence structure, Word order=Poss.pronoun+Sentence structure, Word order=Poss.pronoun +Noun (English type of word order: your mother)
 social problems
 Sound 0 - inventory - defining, characteristic for each language
 Sound 0 - inventory in context (phonetic) (see Obolo(Andoni))
 Sound 00 - inventory - sound minimal pairs
 Sound 1 characteristic, in some instances rare consonants, vowels, or semi-vowels (Igbo, sounds spelled as kp, gb 'akpa'=bag, 'agba'=jaw)
 Sound 2 absence of common sounds (consonant 'p' as a phoneme is often missing from many languages, e.g., Somali, however, the cosnonant 'p' exists as a positional variant in certain phonetic contexts, e.g., roob = rain, b=p in word final position)
 Sound 3 absence of characteristic sounds typical for the area (Niger-Congo, West Africa))
 Sound 4 presence of sounds missing in several languages in the region
 Sound 5 characteristic processes, (e.g., Vowel Harmony e.g. dotted vowels combine with dotted vowels, and non-dotted combine with non-dotted OR l, r or even n can be used interchangeably)
 Sound 6 absence of characteristic processes in the area (e.g., Absence of vowel harmony in some major dialects of Yoruba.)
 Sound 7 sound repetition including parts of words (reduplication) (Somali, reduplication full or partial is used in Plural formation. Full reduplication, some adjectives e.g. cad=white, white Plural= cadcad, yar=small, small Plural=yaryar. NOUN 4, decl. 4 , e.g., af=language; afaf. Partial roob=rain, roobab=rains.)
 Sound 8 syllable structure (Sound combinations, permitted or not permitted; see English psychology; p is not pronounced because 'ps' does not occur in English)
 Source conversations and conversation excerpts
 Source narratives
 Source word, phrase, sentence lists
 Source, Stories and Tales currently available only from the map of Africa by clicking on the country marker (A story of three daughters and their mother, corals and the cowrie shells.)
 Sports, soccer, etc.
 Thank you and courtesy expressions (thank you, please, pleased to meet you)
 Thank you and courtesy expressions-Response pairs.
 time expressions (morning, evening, etc., clock time, months)
 time expressions, clock time
 Tone/Grammar (Igbo; ulo ato=third house or three houses depending on the tone)
 Tone/Grammar/IQuestions (E.g. Igbo; Questions=low tone on the subject unless it is a clitic pronoun.)
 Tone/Grammar/Negation (Igbo, negation=high tone on the agreement marker)
 Tone/Word level meaning (Igbo: oke=male or boundary or rat or share depending on the tones)
 Transportation, communications
 Verb 1, Conjugation 1, Somali, no suffix added, the Imperative form ends in a consonant (Examples: , e.g. , 'joog' = be in place; kèen=cook, the infinitive=kéeni, arag=see, the infinitive 'árki')
 Verb 2a, Conjugation 2a, Somali, Imperative form - i (Examples: , e.g. , 'tiri' = count)
 Verb 2b, Conjugation 2b, the Imperative form ends in -ee (Examples: , e.g. , 'samèe =make, do; the infinitive = 'samèyn)
 Verb 3a, Conjugation 3a, the Imperative form ends in -o, vowel change to - a-in Past Tense (Examples: , e.g. , 'iibso = buy for oneself, purchase, Past Tense 'iibsaday /iibsadey', the Infinitive form 'iibsan')
 Verb 3b, Conjugation 3b, the Imperative form ends in -o, vowel loss in the Past Tense (Examples: , e.g. , 'dhiso =build for oneself, Past Tense 'idhistey', the Infinitive form 'dhisan')
 Verb 4a, Conjugation 4a, Somali, Irregular, root-changing verb 'to say' (Examples: , e.g., the Imperative 'oro' = say, Past Tense 'oran', the Infinitive 'oran')
 Verb 4b, Conjugation 4b, Somali, Irregular, root-changing verb 'to come' (Examples: e.g., the Imperative 'imow' = come, Past Tense 'yimi', the Infinitive 'iman')
 Verb 4c, Conjugation 4c, Somali, Irregular, 'root-changing verb to be in a place' (Examples: e.g., the Imperative 'ool' = come, Past Tense 'yiil', the Infinitive 'oolli')
 Verb 4d, Conjugation 4d, Somali, Irregular, root-changing verb 'to know' (Examples: e.g., the Imperative 'oqoow' = know, Past Tense 'yiqiin', the Infinitive 'oqoon')
 Verb 5a, Conjugation 5a, Irregular Verb, Auxiliary, yahay=to be (Examples: e.g., the Imperative 'ahow' , Past Tense 'ahaa', the Infinitive 'ahaan')
 Verb 5b, Conjugation 5b, Irregular Verb, Auxiliary=to have (Examples: e.g., the Imperative 'lahow', Past Tense 'lahaa', the Infinitive 'lahaan')
 words for animals, birds, fish
 words for people or related /and names
 words, special, land, conflict, medical, technical, military, maritime
 words, special, religion, local commerce, education,cognates
 words/phrases/for disasters/weather/ also social problems